Milestone targets The milestone targets indicate steps along the way to the environmental quality objectives and the generational goal. svenska Share Contact Listen The milestone targets are intended to identify a desired social change and specify steps towards achieving the generational goal and one or more of the environmental quality objectives. However, they are not to specify a state of the environment, since this is established in the environmental quality objectives and the associated specifications. Milestone targets can also be added to the environmental objectives system on the basis of goals adopted within the European Union or by incorporating international agreements into the system. The milestone targets are divided into five areas: reduced climate impact, air pollution, biodiversity, dangerous substances, sustainable urban development and waste. Sweden's milestone targets Reduced climate impact Emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020By 2020, emissions of greenhouse gases in Sweden, from activities not included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, should be reduced by 40 per cent compared with 1990. This means that, by 2020, greenhouse gas emissions from the non-trading sector are to be around 20 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent lower than in 1990. The decrease will be achieved by emission reductions in Sweden and by means of investments in other EU member states or flexible mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism. Emissions of greenhouse gases by 2030Emissions in Sweden outside of the EU ETS should by 2030 be at least 63 per cent lower than emissions in 1990. To achieve the goal, no more than 8 percentage points of the emissions reductions may be realised through supplementary measures. Emissions of greenhouse gases by 2040Emissions in Sweden outside of the EU ETS should by 2040 be at least 75 per cent lower than emissions in 1990. To achieve the goal, no more than 2 percentage points of the emissions reductions may be realised through supplementary measures. Emissions of greenhouse gases by 2045By 2045, Sweden is to have no net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and should thereafter achieve negative emissions. To achieve zero net emissions, supplementary measures may be counted. By 2045, emissions from activities in Swedish territory are to be at least 85 per cent lower than emissions in 1990. Emissions of greenhouse gases from domestic transportEmissions from domestic transport, excluding domestic aviation, are to be reduced by at least 70 per cent by 2030 compared with 2010. Domestic aviation is not included in the goal since domestic aviation is included in the EU ETS. Air pollution Reduction of national emissions of air pollutants Emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and particulate matter (PM2.5) shall no later than in 2025 correspond to indicative emission levels for 2025 set out in Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC. Biodiversity Importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem servicesBy 2018, the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services are to be generally known and integrated into economic positions, political considerations and other decisions in society where it is relevant and reasonable to do so. Knowledge about genetic diversityMapping and monitoring of genetic diversity are to be initiated by 2020. The protection of land areas, freshwater areas and marine areasAt least 20 per cent of Sweden's land and freshwater areas, and 10 per cent of Sweden's marine areas, by 2020 contribute to achieving national and international biodiversity targets. This will take place through protection or other conservation in areas of particular importance to biodiversity or ecosystem services. This conservation will take place with ecologically representative and well-connected systems, which include reserves, other effective area-based protective measures or environmentally sound usage. These systems are to be well integrated in the surrounding landscape and managed in an efficient and inclusive way. Between 2012 and 2020, at least 1 142 000 additional hectares are to be protected as follows:- High nature value forests are to be protected from tree-felling. This will take place through an increase in formally protected forest land of approximately 150 000 hectares of high nature value forests in need of formal protection below the montane forest zone.- Voluntary set-asides by the forestry industry should have increased by approximately 200 000 hectares to a total of 1 450 000 hectares of forest land in areas that are, or may develop into, high nature value areas.- The formal protection of wetlands has increased by 210 000 hectares as a result of boglands and fens of high nature value being protected under the 'National plan for conservation of boglands and fens'.- The formal protection of lakes and watercourses has increased by at least 12 000 hectares.- The formal protection of marine areas has increased by at least 570 000 hectares.- The ecological connections have been strengthened so that protected areas and areas and biotopes conserved in other ways are well connected and integrated in the landscape, including the marine environment. Dangerous substances Particularly dangerous substancesDecisions taken within the European Union and internationally on such substances are to include measures which mean that:– By 2018, particularly dangerous substances are subject to examination or phase-out decisions under current regulations in all areas of use.– By 2018, particularly dangerous substances in production processes are only used under strictly regulated circumstances.– By 2018, the expression ‘particularly dangerous substances’ in relevant regulations also includes substances with serious properties other than those included in the current specific criteria and which give rise to an equivalent level of concern. Knowledge on the health and environmental properties of substancesDecisions taken within the European Union and internationally will require that information on properties of chemicals that are hazardous to the environment and human health is to be available and sufficient for the purposes of risk assessment for all areas of use. Decisions are to include measures which mean that:– By 2018, the information requirements for registration under REACH regarding substances that are manufactured or imported in smaller quantities (less than 10 tonnes per manufacturer or importer annually) are enhanced. Information about dangerous substances in articles– Regulations or agreements within the European Union or internationally are to be applied in such a way that information about substances hazardous to health and the environment that are present in articles is available to all parties concerned by 2020.– The regulations are to be introduced gradually for different product groups, and children’s health is to be given particular focus in the information.– Information about substances hazardous to health and the environment that are present in materials and articles is to be made available throughout the entire product life cycle through harmonised systems that cover prioritised product groups. Development and application of the EU's chemical rulesREACH and other relevant EU regulations are to be applied by 2020 at the latest or revised if necessary so that: – it will to a greater extent become possible to assess and test groups of substances with similar intrinsic properties, chemical structures or areas of use.– the substitution principle and its application is strengthened in connection with restrictions, consideration of permits and other relevant elements of the regulatory framework. More effective chemicals supervision in the EUDecisions are made within the EU by 2018 at the latest that strengthen and streamline supervision in the Member States and develop supervisory cooperation within the Union regarding rules for chemicals, including dangerous substances in goods and waste. Non-toxic and resource-efficient ecocycles The safe use of recycled material from a health and environmental perspective through, as far as possible, avoiding the recirculation of dangerous substances while resource-efficient ecocycles are sought. This is to be achieved through an overall action strategy within the EU, which, by 2018 at the latest, is to result in a number of measures, including:– the finalisation and coordination of EU regulations on waste, chemicals and goods so that they steer towards non-toxic and resource-efficient ecocycles– the establishment of the principle of high and uniform requirements on the content of dangerous substances in newly produced and recycled materials, through a decision where appropriate. Reducing children's exposure to dangerous chemicals Decisions are made by 2018 at the latest concerning existing and, if necessary, new regulations and other policy levers which will bring about a significant reduction in the health risks to children as a result of overall exposure to chemicals. The risk reduction is to be assessed in comparison with the situation in 2012. Greater environmental consideration in EU pharmaceuticals legislation and internationallyDecisions are made within the EU or internationally by 2020 at the latest that involve existing and any new regulations for medicinal products for human or veterinary use taking greater environmental consideration. Sustainable urban development Proportion of pedestrian, bicycle and public transportThe proportion of personal journeys using public transport, cycling or walking in Sweden must be at least 25 per cent by 2025, expressed in person kilometres travelled, with a view to doubling in the long term the proportion for pedestrian, bicycle and public transport. Integration of urban greenery and ecosystem services into urban environments The majority of the municipalities must utilise and integrate urban greenery and ecosystem services into urban environments in the planning, building and administration of towns and cities and densely populated areas by no later than 2025. Method for urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments The municipalities must have access to a developed method for utilising and integrating city greenery and ecosystem services into urban environments in the planning, building and administration of towns and cities and densely populated areas by no later than 2020. Waste Better resource management in the food chainMeasures are to be taken so that, by 2020, resource management in the food chain is improved through separation and biological treatment of at least 50 per cent of food waste from households, catering services, shops and restaurants, with the aim of recovering plant nutrients, with at least 40 per cent treated in such a way that energy is also recovered. Construction and demolition wasteMeasures are to be taken so that, by 2020, at least 70 per cent by weight of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste is prepared for reuse, recycling and other material recovery.